Urdu - The Origin And History Of The Language

The time period Urdu derives from a Turkish word ordu meaning camp or army. The Urdu language developed between the Muslim soldiers of the Mughals armies who belonged to varied ethnicities like Turks, Arabs, Persians, Pathans, Balochis, Rajputs, Jats and Afghans. These soldiers lived in shut contact with each other and communicated in different dialects, which slowly and gradually evolved into present day Urdu. It is for this reason that Urdu is also referred to as Lashkari Zaban or language of the army.

Throughout its development Urdu language additionally assumed various names like the time period Urdu-e-Maullah which means the exalted army which was given by Emperor Shah Jahan and the term Rekhta meaning scattered (with Persian words) which was coined by the scholars for Urdu poetry.

History and Evolution of Urdu Language

Evolution and development of any language is dependent on the evolution and development of a society the place that language is spoken. Varied invasions and conquests on a spot affect the development of its language. Urdu is not any exception as it additionally underwent various levels of development.

Urdu belongs to the Indo-Aryan household of languages. Urdu by origin is considered to be a descendent of Saur Senic Prakrit. The term Prakrriti means root or basis. It's a later version of Sanskrit. As Prakrit language began to develop, it was influenced by Western Hindi dialects of Khari Boli, Brij Bhasa and Haryanvi.

With the coming of Insha's Darya-e-Latafat*, a need was felt to distinguish Urdu with different languages especially Hindi. It grew to become a Hindi-Urdu controversy and in consequence Khari Boli and Devanagari grew to become the identity of Indians while Urdu and Persian of Muslims. In this context, Persian and Arabic words replaced with Sanskrit served the aim of differentiating Hindi from Urdu.

Urdu emerged as a definite language after 1193 AD - the time of the Muslims conquest. When the Muslims conquered this part of the continent, they made Persian the official and cultural language of India. Because of the amalgamation of local dialects and the language of the invaders - which was either Persian, Arabic and Turkish, a new language developed which later became Urdu. Throughout the Mughals reign, Urdu was spoken in palaces and court and till the top of the Mughal rule; Urdu was the official language of most of Mughal states. This was the time when Urdu had develop into Persianized and enriched with Persian words, phrases and even script and grammar. With the coming of the British, new English words also grew to become part of the Urdu language. Many English words have been accepted of their real form while others had been accepted after some modifications.

At the moment, Urdu vocabulary contains approximately 70% of Persian words and the remaining are a combination of Arabic and Turkish words. Nonetheless, there are additionally traces of the French, Portuguese and Dutch language in Urdu. But these influences are little.

Urdu was taken to other parts of the country by soldiers, saints and sufis and by the widespread people. As a result of the political, social and cultural contacts amongst the folks of different speech and dialects, a blended form of language formed called 'Rekhta' (Urdu and Persian in mixed form). Quickly individuals started to make use of the new language of their speech and in literature which resulted in the enrichment of Urdu language and literature.

Urdu Literature

The origin of Urdu literature dates back to the 13th century in India during the Mughal rule. One of the eminent earliest poets who made utilization of Urdu in his poetry is Amir Khusro who will be called the daddy of Urdu language. In literature, Urdu was usually used along side Persian. Mughal kings were the nice patrons of art and literature and it was under their rule that Urdu language reached its zenith. There used to be a tradition of 'Sheri Mehfils' (poetic gatherings) in the kings' courts. Abul Fazal Faizi and Abdul Rahim Khankhana had been the well-known Urdu poets of Mughal court. Likewise, Mirza Ghalib, Allama Iqbal, Hakim Momin, Ibrahim Zauq, Mir Taqi Mir, Sauda, Ibn-e-Insha and Faiz Ahmed Faiz have contributed to the evolution of Urdu language through their literary works.

It is certainly true that Hindi and Urdu are descendents of the same language i.e. Prakrit, but where the Hindi took influence from Sanskrit and adopted Devanagri script of writing, Urdu absorbed words from Persian, Turkish and Arabic languages and adopted Persian-Arabic script and Nastaliq calligraphic fashion of writing and emerged as a separate language. However beside frequent ancestry, the 2 languages are as totally different as can be. There are marked grammatical, phonological and lexical differences in each languages.

Urdu was additionally used as a instrument by the Muslims for freedom battle and for making awareness amongst Muslim communities in South Asia to unite under the banner of Independence from British Raj. For this, services of Maulana Hali, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and Allama Iqbal will not beable, who by way of their poetry and prose provoked the mandatory spark in the lives of the Muslims. Urdu was chosen to change into the national language of Pakistan on the time of Independence from British. Urdu is now the nationwide language of Pakistan, spoken and understood thoroughly by majority of the population.

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